Questions & Answers

Archive #1 [1999-2000]

25 January 2002





Can anyone help me with what papers were used by British Soldiers during the Second World War for Watercolours? In general whether the papers and watercolour pigments they used were issued by the Ministry of Defence or whether they were their own papers and watercolours? Who were the major paper makers of the time? Does anyone know of someone who would know? All information welcome no matter how trivial.

Robert Wynne-Jones MA Conservation Camberwell College of Arts - The London Institute (question received 8/12/2000)

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Who can help me with informations about the so called CHAPELLE-Machines? I need information when, where and in which form this machines were built. I found one of these machines in an article from 1856 with the information that it was build up in 1842 (Firma Diedrich Riedel in Rostock, Germany). Who has plans or technical dates of this machine-type or a machine list?

Roman Luplow

(question received 3/10/2000)

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I'm doing some research on the 6 papermills which were in Tealby, Lincolnshire, until the late 19th century. I would like to find out who they made their 'good quality' paper for? Yours hopefully,

Christine Harrison
(question received 6/9/2000)

You say there were 6 papermills. I only know of 3: High papermill, Low papermill, Springside.
I live in Tealby and I am writing an article on the mills and the papermakers.
Please can you send me a copy of anything you have written

Hugh Nott
(answer received 20/3/2001)

I would like to know if there is any biography about the Miliani Family, papermakers of Fabriano. Is this family working since the 13th century? Is there any Italian family connected with paper from this time?

Miguel Fonseca
(question received 8/2/2000)

Dear sir, here you'll find a very short biography about Miliani Family of Fabriano. Miliani became papermakers in the XVIII century (there is no news about this family before this century). Pietro Miliani was employed as papermaker in a papermill owned by a noble fabrianese family (counts), Vallemani, landowner and owner of a papermill in Fabriano. Pietro Miliani became a reliable person for Vallemani, who was an ancient count, more involved in his farms rather than in the papermill; as P. Miliani was a clever person and very interested in papermaking, the count gave him the whole responsability of his papermill (1782). In a short time P. Miliani became owner of the same papermill (1785), that was expanded and strengthened. Step by step Miliani purchased some other papermills located near Fabriano (1791-93), becoming the chief of a little "empire of paper", which was inherited (1817) by his sons, Niccolò (+ 1835), Tommaso (+1842) and Rinaldo (+ 1862), and then by the nephew Giuseppe (+1887) and the son of Giuseppe, Giovanbattista. After the Second World War the Miliani Group became a corporation. Now the owner is The Polygraphic of Italian Republic.


G. Castagnari (editor), La città della carta [The capital city of paper], Comune di Fabriano, Fabriano, 1982

G. Castagnari, U. Mannucci L'arte della carta a Fabriano [Papermaking in Fabriano] Museo della carta e della filigrana, Fabriano, 1991

G. Castagnari Giovanbattista Miliani, industriale della carta [G. Miliani papermaker] in AA.VV., Miscellanea di storia della carta Pia Università dei Cartai, Fabriano, 1991

A. F. Gasparinetti [editor] Pietro Miliani fabbricante di carta [P. Miliani papermaker] Cartiere Miliani Fabriano, Fabriano, 1963

F. Mariani L'antica cartiera di Fabriano Il Lavoro Editoriale, Ancona, 1997

Franco Mariani
(answer received 9/5/2000)


Who could help me identify this watermark (crest with an 'winged' aesculapius sign and the initials EB).

I think it is French 19th c., but I would like to know more. The same design was used for a blind stamp. I am curious by whom or by which institution it was used.

Your webmaster
(question received 01/01/00)

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I am trying to locate any history on the sizes of paper. Specifically, where did the size 8 1/2 x 11 originate? When? Where? By who? Can anyone help?

Fred Zingg
(question received 20/12/99)

You will find a lot of information in C.M. Briquet's Les filigranes (1907), first volume, as well as in an article by our IPH honorary member Oriol Valls i Subira, "Les formats du papier et la pierre de Bologne", published in our periodical IPH-Information 9/2 (1975), pp. 26-30. Perhaps you may also find some useful information in my book Italian Late-Medieval and Renaissance Drawing-Books from Giovannino de'Grassi to Palma Giovane. A codicological approach, pp. 37 ff.

Dr. Albert J. Elen
(answer received 29/12/99)

In a French (or Swiss) music manuscript dating ca. 1813-1815 the following watermark is found: Fellows 1808. I would appreciate any information about this papermaker. English or?

Kenneth Sparr
(question received 9/12/99)

About Kenneth Sparr’s query: an illustration of a FELLOWS watermark is given in Heawood’s 1950 catalogue in plate 434 (with the year 1827). Another (with the year 1810) is to be found in IPH Information 2/1983, p. 81. Fellows was the name of three papermakers mentioned in A.H.Shorter.1957. Paper Mills and Paper Makers in England 1495-1800, pp. 140,142,182,262. Their forenames were James, John and William, and they had paper mills in Buckinghamshire and Kent. Kenneth Sparr’s mark, with the year 1808, would be quite consistent with use in say 1810-1815.

Russell Jones (answer received 8/8/2000)

Je recherche des informations sur les fabricants de papier photographique des années 1860-1930. Pouvez vous m'aider
I am looking for information on the producers of photographic paper in the years 1860-1930.
Can you please help me?

Christian Sixou
(question received 13/11/99)

Les annuaires de la papeterie permettent (parfois) de retrouver les fabricants de papier photographique sans toutefois donner beaucoup de précisions.
Par exemple, l'annuaire de l'Office des fabricants de papier de 1905 indique 6 fabricants:
- Aubert-René et Cie à Bas-Aubert par Francheval dans les Ardennes (maison également à Paris);
- Bergès Père et fils à Lancey (Isère);
- Blanchet frères et Kléber à Rives (Isère);
- Ernest Gaillard à Saint-Vincent de Blanzat (Puy de Dôme);
- Société Lumière et ses Fils à Lyon-Monplaisir (Rhône);
- Papeterie de Vidalon à Vidalon-les-Annonay (Ardèche);
Bien évidemment, il faudrait faire des recherches plus poussées (au niveau local) sur ces entreprises.
Que recherchez-vous précisément?: les entreprises ou les procédés de fabrication?
Vous pouvez me contacter au Musée du Papier d'Angoulême (05 45 92 73 43) ou
par courrier électronique. .

Denis Peaucelle
conservateur, Musée du Papier d'Angoulême
(answer received 29/11/99)

I wonder if someone could help to find the origin this watermark; it belongs to a Portuguese manuscript dating from the end of the 18th century

Miguel Fonseca
(question received 19/11/99)

This is only the central part of a much larger watermark, consisting of a crest, with scrolls and topped by a tree (see ill.). The entwined crosses 'xX' in the shield are the merchants mark of the Dutch papermakers family Blauw.

The Blauw firm operated five wind papermills in the Zaanstreek in the Dutch province of North Holland (North of Amsterdam) during the second half of the 18th century. The initials 'D & C B' stand for Dirk and Cornelis Blauw.
See H. Voorn, De papiermolens in de provincie Noord-Holland (De geschiedenis van de Nederlandse papierindustrie, vol. I), Haarlem 1960, pp. 138, 207 (fig. 165, reproduced here: this watermark was found in a document dated 1768), 416-417.

Dr. Albert J. Elen
(answer received 21/11/99)

I have come across a newspaper - The ULSTER COUNTY GAZETTE - 1 april 1800 (Ulster County, New York). The paper covers the death of George Washington. I would like to get information on the proper handling of this material in order to preserve it for may family.

Fred W. Schmitz
(question received 15/11/99)

I would suggest going to the New York Public Library, which has a special department for Paper History. They also have a conservation department, where they may give you expert advise on how to preserve your newspaper. When printed in 1800 the newspaper must have been printed on handmade paper (basic material: cotton rags), which is easier to preserve than machinemade paper (basic material: wood pulp) introduced around the middle of the 19th century.

Dr. Albert J. Elen
(answer received 21/11/99)

I am editing an article for publication this week about the manufacture of experimental Silkote postage stamp paper at the S.D. Warren Westbrook, Maine, U.S.A., in 1954. In three paragraphs of reminiscences by a back tender, the words "pope reel" are used once in the second paragraph. Can you please tell me what a pope reel is, what it does, and where its name comes from?
The three paragraphs follow: "I recall working on the paper machine as a back tender. My job was to take care of the dry end for proper drying of the Silkote paper. The boss machine tender and the machine tender working at the wet end of the machine were to make sure that the right stock was put together along with the color going through the coater midway of the machine." [...] "It was also my job to make sure the color was of good quality. I also took care of the pope reel and when it reached proper size, we removed it to the winder for proper width of rolls. At this time it was shipped to another department for the final finish of the Silkote paper" [...] "During the time when the stamp was printed the Westbrook postmaster did manage to save a full sheet of the 2¢ Jefferson Silkote"[...] "Somewhere between 1963-64, the postmaster, knowing that I worked as a papermaker at S.D. Warren, showed me his full sheet. I purchased the sheet of stamps from him and have kept it in a safe place for the last 34 years".

Rob Haeseler
Senior Editor Linn's Stamp News
(question received 20/10/99)

The pope reel is the ultimate part (a reel) of the paper machine, where the paper web after drying is wound up (transmitted by air) onto the reel or winding roll to form the drum. The name 'Pope' is the name of the inventor.

Dr. Peter F. Tschudin
(reply received 22/10/99)

I am trying to find out any information on a Watermark. It is on a laid paper whose lines are 1 1/4 inches apart. The Watermark is a crude cross being formed out of an imperfect rectangular box which appears within a circle. The top of the cross touches the top of the circle and the rectangle corners touch the bottom of the circle. Does anyone know anything about it? Also I am looking for information on another Watermark with the name La Stella. Also on laid paper whose lines are 1 inch apart. This has a floral design around the bottom of it and a star at the top.

Charles Purro
(question received 5/9/99)

Dear Miguel Fonseca, thanks for getting back to me. Sorry it has taken so long to get back to you. I was having the document which is a manuscript birds-eye type view of Malta cleaned by a conservator and just got it back. Once the paper was cleaned I was able to make out a watermarked name which appears to be J. Bouchet or J. Boucher. I am trying to date this manuscript. It appears to me to be an 18th century item. If you have any information regarding this name. It would be greatly appreciated. This J. Bouchet or Boucher used a cross type watermark as well described in my last inquiry.

Charles Purro
(2nd question received 24/1/2000, revised 2/2/2000)

Dear Charles. Is it possible to digitalize a photo of your watermarks? You don't mention the country of this watermark, the date of the document, if it is manuscript or impression, and so on. You are giving too few information to work with ... an image is needed! Please send it to this Q&A page in gif-, tif- or jpg-format.

Miguel Fonseca
(answer received 2/12/99)

[1]Do you have any information about the papermill in Velce Losini?

[2]When will the Papermill of Duszniki Zdroij function again?

Werner Schöffel
(question received 3/8/99)

Handmade Paper Mill Velké Losiny is situated in North Moravia (Czech Republik) in the village Velké Losiny (former Gross Ullersdorf) near the town of Sumperk (former Mährisch Schönberg) and was established prior to 1596. After 400 years of continuous production the Losiny Paper Mill is today not only a unique technical and cultural monument; it is said to be the oldest functional manufacturing plant operating in Central Europe. At the mill paper is made by hand using original formulas and processes that have come down through the centuries. Also on the mill grounds there is a Museum of the Paper (the only one of its kind in the Czech Republic) and an Art Gallery presenting works of artists who use Velké Losiny handmade paper as a medium. Visit the website of the paper mill: click here.

Dieter Freyer, Vienna/Austria
(answer received 14/1/2000)

The Duszniki Papermuseum was reopened on 3 July 1999. For more information see our
news archive page, as well as the information by the director and the photographs of the 1998 flood.

The New York Times said in an 1864 article that most of the paper on which Confederate money and bonds were printed during the American Civil War was manufactured by the Marietta Paper Manufacturing Company of Cobb County Georgia. Do you know anything about paper manufacture in the South 1861-1865, and is this assertion about the Marietta Company true?

M.M. King
(question received 21/7/99)

In answer to the question of M.M. King:
A quote from "A History of Paper-Manufacturing in the United States, 1690-1916" by Lyman Horace Weeks published in 1916. Page 269.
"Just before the war William S . Whiteman, third of the name, who had been active in paper-making in Tennessee, following his father and his grandfather, built another mill in the old Stone Fort, near Manchester. One of Whiteman mills was operated successfully on news, book, manilla and wrapping until the fall of Fort Donelson in 1862. Throughout the war it never stopped running, night and day of Sunday, except to clean the boilers. Its product, the largest of any mill in the South, was shipped to every point that could be reached outside the state. Confederate bank notes and other government securities were printed on paper there made."
"When the war broke out in 1861 there were fifteen mills in the states that seceded. They produced seventy-five thousand pounds of paper daily while the daily consumption in that part of the country was over one hundred and fifty thousand pounds, fully one half the supply being drawn from Europe and from mills in the west. An entire suspension of newspaper publishing was at once imminent and the burning of the mill in Augusta, Ga., in 1863, the largest in the south, intensified the seriousness of the situation. Other paper mills of the period were located in Richmond, Va., one in South Carolina, probably at Bath; and one in Marietta, Ga., operated by James Byrd, an uncle of William S. Whiteman, of Nashville."
A quote from "PAPERMAKING The History and Technique of an Ancient Craft" by Dard Hunter published in 1947. Page 535.
" During the War between the States the Marietta mill was operated by James Byrd, an uncle of William S. Whiteman, who owned a paper mill in Tennessee where was made much of the paper used in printing the Confederate money and bonds."
I hope this helps.
Albert Aldham
(answer received 12 October 1999)

ABTCP (Brazilian Pulp and Paper Technical Association) is a technical association obligated to contribute with the technological development of the pulp and paper sector, and a center of fundamental research in the fields of papermaking and allied sciences. As an Information Center we search papers for our members and customers concerning bibliographies references or subjects requested. We have a specific request about the history of thermal paper. Could you please provide any information for us? If not, could you tell us how can we find it? We thank you very much in advance for your answer, and remain,

Ana Paula Marcondes
Coordinator of Information Center
(question received 8/7/99)

An acquaintance of mine might have an answer to this question as he worked on the paperlab for a company producing photocopy machines. Please contact Hub Roncken, the Netherlands

It is worth a try. Good luck

Paper in Development
René Teygeler MA
(answer received 19/11/99)

I have been trying to research the "name" of a design. It is most often seen on the endsheets or cover binding on older sewn-bound books. It is also featured with fine stationery. The best that I can describe the design is: A swirling or dragging of pigments on top of the fibers of the paper. It seems to have been very common in its day, but is now only seen in connection with "fine" stationery. Any help you can provide is appreciated.

Gretchen Tiger
(question received 2/7/99)

It is not altogether clear to me what you mean. Perhaps you are describing marbled papers. Try that as a keyword at one of the main search engines.
Albert Elen
(answer sent 2/7/99)

Thank you, Yes, it was a marbled paper (peacock to be exact) I was seeing in my mind. I found a wonderful site based on your suggestion. Gretchen
(reaction received 6/7/99)


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