Questions & Answers

6 December 2011

This is a service to all people interested in paper and its applications

please refer to the date of the question received!

Please try to find answers first by using the main search engines, like Google, Yahoo and Altavista
and check online watermark databases like the Gravell Watermark Archive (Search the Database)
and check our IPH webpage with hyperlinks to other watermark databases
Do not expect to receive quick answers, it will probably take a few days before questions are put on this website
and it may take a few weeks or months before someone sends us an answer.
Questions about watermarks: generally you may find similar types in the Watermark reference books, check List of main watermark reference books.


Answers and Reactions

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Please send us your questions & answers and further information - more than one answer is most welcome! - for inclusion in this table. Please refer to the question and it's date. If you want to remain anonymous, please indicate so

Who’s next?


Unicorn Watermark


I am trying to identify a specific unicorn watermark (pdf attached). It’s pretty similar to many late 16th-century watermarks as cited eg. in the Gravell Watermark archive. But I wonder if anyone has come across this particular example. It’s on a sheet of paper with a small piece of text which I think may have been written by William Lambarde. I’ll be going to look at other material to check out the watermarks, but as watermarks are a completely new field for me I don’t want to reinvent the wheel. In case this is something

immediately obvious to specialists in the field I thought I’d post this here first.

Joy Jenkyns

(question received 04/12/2011)

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Watermarks in Malay manuscripts


Can anyone identify these two fragments of watermarks (see pdf file), which are probably early eighteenth century? They are in Malay manuscripts (Dd.5.37 (1) and Gg.6.40 (2)) in Cambridge University Library.


Russell Jones

(question received: 29/09/2011)

#2    Dear Albert,

Yes, that is it! I should have known, I had recorded the upper part separately (image attached) and identified that with Churchill no. 266, (his drawing is not so clear) ‘1623 Arms of Burgundy and Austria’. The Cambridge manuscript can be fairly reliably dated 1604 AD, so now we have the complete watermark and a rang of possible date early in the 17th Century. Very satisfactory, thank you.

Kind regards,

Russell                 27 October 2011



#2    Dear Russell,


The second watermark is of the type Arms of Burgundy and Austria, with the Golden Fleece, similar to Heawood 481 [found in a written document in] Schieland [area around Delft] 1602. I came across a similar watermark, with the Fleece turned the other way, in a drawing by Hendrick Avercamp (Amsterdam 1585-1634 Kampen), kept in the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. Illustrated in their collection catalogue Dutch Drawings in the Pierpont Morgan Library. Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries, New York 2006, vol 2, end section. If you google  ‘Arms of Burgundy watermark’ you will find some interesting hits, a.o.  references to similar watermarks in a Rembrandt print, c. 1620-25, in the British Museum, and in a drawing by Cornelis Vroom at Yale, c. 1638-40.


Albert Elen


(answer received: 26.10.2011)

#1    Dear Russell,

Judging from the photographs these are resp. the upper part and the lower part of different watermarks found in the centre of pages in a quarto gathering. The other half of each watermark is then found in the corresponding page, part of the same bifolio, elsewhere in the gathering, which you may find when first locating the binding thread at the middle bifolio of the gathering and then counting down to the left and to the right. The first watermark I do not recognize, but leafing through Heawood or Churchill, which I do not have ready to hand at home, may yield results. The second watermark is a (probably crowned) coat of arms, with rampant lions symmetrically placed in two of five quarters, with a small centre shield, which may all be identified when doing some heraldic research. The animal below the crest may refer to the Order of the Golden Fleece.

I hope this may help you in your further research.


Albert Elen


(answer received: 29.09.2011)


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Watermarks in Old Master drawings by German artists


I am writing to ask for the help of the IPH community in the identification of five watermarks (5 mb pdf-file) which are found in early German drawings in the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest. Any information would be greatly appreciated.

Thank you.


Szilvia Bodnár

(question received: 21/11/2011)

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Watermark and countermarks "D & R"  "1804"  "Britania" device.


Can anyone tell me the mill this watermark+countermark was made in?

More photos can be seen on my web site (along with other watermarks)

It is shown toward the bottom of the page.


Thank you,

Ron Bodoh

(question received: 21/11/2011)

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MARIANO watermark


Can anyone help identify this watermark? Examples have been found in New Mexico from 1840 to 1860. The watermark reads MARIANO.

Opposite is an ornate M. Any help will be appreciated.


Rick Hendricks, Ph.D.

State Historian

Office of the State Historian

1205 Camino Carlos Rey

Santa Fe, NM 87507

(question received: 10/11/2011)

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Storage of paper documents during travels at sea


Long ago I learned that during a sea voyage paper was sometimes/usually packed into watertight barrels, which would offer good protection against the damp. I cannot trace my source for this. Do you happen to know anything about the way paper was protected on its voyages to the east?


With kind regards,


Russell Jones

(question received: 27/09/11)


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VDL watermark #3 question: watermark in an 18th-c. drawing

I saw Mr Pollets VDL watermark #1 question on your website regarding his maps in Chile. I have spent some hours looking at various watermark sites (ie.Gravells etc) as I have a 18th Century drawing with I think has the same indicators. I believe my drawing was executed in Rome around 1757. Its on laid paper with the Watermark I illustrate attached as a pdf. I had got to the Van Der Ley connection. I have read the the Van der Ley paper was produced as early as 1673 or possibly earlier and on the death of GP the father, the family continued to produce laid paper with a variety of Intials. I copy below a drawing of my watermark. (partial)  Sorry its poor quality - I didn’t want to trace as this can leave marks. There are two versions. One Verso.

Can you guide me further. The artist of my drawing may well have bought his paper with him from France to Rome. But I think it was sold all over Europe.

Best Regards

S. Testar

(question received: 03/09/2011)

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VDL watermark #2 question

It is possible to identify the right period of the Van der Ley watermarks of which I do attach a couple of them found in the same paper (where a nice piece of the Giudizio Universale from Michelangelo was engraved)?
Thanking a lot for anything You may provide, I send You my best regards.

Roberto Bonfanti (from Milano, Italy)

(question received: 10/07/2011)

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VDL watermark #1 question: watermark in nautical documents in Chile


We are Chilean researchers from the Instituto de Arqueología Náutica y Subacuática, Santiago. We are currently running a project of nautical historical cartography of the Conception bay (South Chile), and we found many documents that could not be dated. One of the maps was found on the Library of Congress web page and the bibliographic description of the document refers to a watermark “Strasburg fleur-de-lis over the characters VDL”, which might enable to date the document of ca. 1725. Here in Chile we don’t have many paper history bibliographical resources, so it is quite difficult for us to investigate the VDL watermark. That is why we are trying to appeal for some help towards the specialist community. We would need to know more about the VDL paper maker (Van der Leyde?), and above all, about the date range given by the watermark: is it that strongly datable, ca. 1725? What references should we get to learn more about it ?

On the another hand, we have some more documents that contain French watermarks, possibly well dated; nevertheless we know by our readings that there might be a time difference between the purchase of the paper in that time, and its effective use. We could read that the very average of this period was around 5 years maximum and never more than 15 years. Does anybody have some recent information about the current hypothesis and investigations on this matter? Hoping we put your attention on this matter.

With our kind regards,

Christophe Pollet

Investigador Científico Titular
Instituto de Arqueología Náutica y Subacuática
Valle del Maipo Oriente 3543 - Peñalolén
Santiago de Chile

(question received: 09/06/2011)


Dear Albert,

Many thanks for your precisions. To continue with the VDL matter, the reason why I wrote to the you is that I was doubting about the date 1725, for the geographical context of the Conception bay as represented on the map, refers better to the period 1740-1750; by the way it is precisely the period that match with the beginning of the added VDL monogram on papers according to Voorn.
The readings we have made about the datation of papers by the means of watermarks point out that indeed, it is quite uncertain, and could be risky to base on. Do the paper specialists have an estimate for the maximum period between the production of a paper and its use? If we can't use the watermark to date precisely a document, however it seems to us this might be used as a "terminus ante quem" for a no dated document.

Yours sincerely,

Christophe Pollet

(reply received: 16/06/2011)

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The VDL stands for Van der Ley, a papermaking producer from the Zaanstreek, located above Amsterdam in the northern part of Holland. They had several types of watermarks, which you may find described and illustrated in, among other publications, Henk Voorn, De papiermolens in de provincie Noord-Holland (De geschiedenis der Nederlandse papierindustrie I), Haarlem 1960, nos a.o. 37, 40, 47, 72, 74, 102, 110, 123, 164, 178, 189, 193. The Strassburg lily is not among them, so better check in Heawood a.o. handbooks which I have not available at home right now. The Van der Ley started to add the monogram shortly before 1750, according to Voorn (p. 121).


Please don not expect to much from watermarks for dating your maps; indeed paper was often used several years after production and the dates given in the handbooks are the dates found on official documents in archives, not production dates. Moreover: the chance that you will find an identical watermark, from the same paper mill and the same time, is very, very little.


Your hyperlink does not work, by the way. It gives a notification: Temporary file open error. Display failed.


Hopefully, others will send more info.


Albert Elen


(answer received: 15/06/2011)


Dating paper used by the artist Henneberg around 1918

I'm working on a bequest of prints made by the Austrian artist Hugo Henneberg who died in 1918 and was best known for his photographs. A newly found volume of apparently hand printed color woodcuts - each one of a kind - raises new questions about the art production of Henneberg also regarding his collaboration with other artist such as Carl Moll.

The prints in question could be considered as proof prints (they are not signed and the papers trimmed to the edge of the block)  but it would be very useful to know whether they could have been printed by the artist himself or probably only after his death. Three sorts of papers were used as seen in the transmitted light photos. One very thin which shows both chain and laid wires (sample1). One a bit thicker that shows only chain wires and no laid wires are detectable (sample2). And one even thicker that shows no wires at all but a very characteristic profile on the verso side (sample3). (See pics) The question is whether one of those papers could have only been produced  a f t e r  1918 or whether all could have been used by Henneberg himself (thus before 1918) or whether one is especially characteristic for the time between 1900 and 1920.

Herwig Tachezi from Vienna

(question received 24/05/2011) watermark images attached in pdf-file (click to download)

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Identification of watermarks


I have been working on a condition report of a 16th century watercolor album and found some leaves have clear watermarks. I am sending you the images of them. Unfortunately I am not an expert on identifying watermarks so I would like to get your advice on the subject. I don't know where the sheets were made but hope that the watermarks will provide some information about it.


Would it be possible for your to advise me on this subject? If not could you please let me know whom I need to contact? 


Many thanks for your kind help in advance. I am looking forward to hearing from you in the near future.


Thank you,


Best regards,

Hyejung Yum

(Question received 26/04/2011) watermark images attached in pdf-file (click to download)

Dear Hyejung,


Two of the watermarks (#1 and #4) in your pdf-file are crossbow watermarks, one (#3) is an anchor in a circle surmounted by three leaves, another (#2) is difficult to discern, something surmounted by a trefoil, the last is a man walking holding a stick over his shoulders, enclosed in a circle (#5) apparently found in a marbled paper endleaf, probably 18th-c.. or later. I do not have the standard watermark reference books ready to hand, but you can check yourself in a research library, f.i. in a museum or a large library: C.M. Briquet’s Filigranes or Piccard’s Wasserzeichenkartei Stuttgart will probably yield similar watermarks of these types. By the way, watercolours in the sixteenth century is an anachronism, the proper denomination is ‘coloured drawings”. And: is it an album, a drawing-book or a convolute? And who is the artist, from which country (Italian perhaps?) and what is the nature of the drawings?



Albert Elen


(Answer received 18/05/2011)

Identification of a watermark type bell with initial HP

Cher Monsieur, chère Madame,

Je travaille actuellement dans le cadre d'une thèse de doctorat sur le matériel d'orchestre d'un opéra donné pour la première fois à l'Opéra de Paris en Novembre 1836.
Je me permets vous écrire afin que vous m'aidiez à identifier un filigrane présent sur ce matériel d'orchestre. Il s'agit d'une cloche à l'intérieure de laquelle sont placées les initiales HP. Sur certaines pages du même feuillet, on peut voir en filigrane le monogramme de la manufacture de papier Dirk et Cornélius Blauw. Kern Holoman, spécialiste des manuscrits de Berlioz a rencontré cette même association de filigrane dans certains manuscrits de Berlioz. Voici la description qu'il fait de ces filigranes, et l'explication qu'il donne au fait que ces deux filigranes soient réunis sur le même document :

 "Berlioz most frequently used the paper marked with a bell and the letters HP. These initials were associated in the seventeenth century with the merchant H. Pannekoek, whose firm still existed in the nineteenth century. It was the practice of Dutch paper makers to manufacture paper in lots specifically for sale to an important buyer, and is those cases the paper was often watermarked not with the maker's monogram, but that of the merchant. It may be that the Hp paper was also manufactured by Blauw; two manuscripts from Berlioz' tile carry both the Blauw shield and the letters HP". Kern Holoman, Autograph musical documents of Hector Berlioz, p. 147.

          J'aurais voulu savoir si cette explication vous parait plausible. Pour ma part, je suis plutôt sceptique. Sachant qu'il existe de nos jours un papier appelé Hollande Pannekoek, je me demande si les initiales HP ne désignent pas tout simplement ce type de papier. Auriez-vous plus d'informations sur l'histoire du papier de Hollande Pannekoek? Ce papier existait-il déjà au début du XIXe siècle? Y a-t-il un rapport avec H. Pannkoek que cite Kern Holoman?

En vous remerciant pour votre aide,

Matéo Crémades

(question received 19/04/2011)

To Matéo Crémades : Je ne connais pas le papier que vous décrivez, mais
il faut savoir que la contremarque "D & C BLAUW" a été copiée et utilisée
pendant tout le XVIIIe s. et au XIXe par divers fabricants français, le
papier n'a donc pas nécessairement de relation avec la production
hollandaise. Quant aux initiales HP, il est possible qu'elles se réfèrent
ici à Holland Paper, mais l'identification valable au XVIIe est
effectivement peu probable à la fin du XIXes... surtout s'il ne s'agit pas
d'un papier hollandais mais français, qui n'a éventuellement de hollandais
que le "style" du filigrane... je vous invite à vérifier dans l'ouvrage de
Raymond Gaudriault "Filigranes et autres caractéristiques du papier" (CNRS
ed., en usuel dans les bibliothèques), bien que votre période soit un peu
tardive pour cet ouvrage. Je connais par exemple un écu couronné portant
les initiales "HP" associé au nom de lieu "Hallines", papier produit par
Dambricourt Frères, utilisé par V. Hugo plutôt à la fin de sa vie
in English: I am not familiar with the paper you describe but would like
to remind you that the countermark "D & C BLAUW" has been copied and used
by many different French papermakers, mainly all over the XVIIIth c. and
also in the XIXth, so that the connection with Dutch papermakers might be
accurate, but it could also be completely misleading. The initials HP may
also be associated with other references (see Gaudriault); as far as XIXth
C., for instance Dambricourt Frères used it in their watermark on a
crowned shield, with the placename "Hallines", on a paper used by Victor
Hugo 1875-1878.

Claire Bustarret, Paris


(answer received: 22/04/2011

The Radford Family and papermaking in Kent, UK

John Noel Balston writes about the Radford Family and papermaking in Kent in his book, "The elder James Whatman: England's greatest paper maker (1702-1759): a study of eighteenth-century papermaking technology and its effect on a critical phase in the history of English white paper manufacture". Printed in multiple volumes for John Balston by the St. Edmundsbury Press, 1992. He indicates that he discusses the Radfords in more detail in Appendix IV. I am trying to get a copy of that section. Does anyone have access to the Appendix?


I would very much appreciate reading his full commentary and analysis about the Radfords, along with any references.


Thank you.


Richard Alan Nelson

Professor, Louisiana State University


(question received 26/06/2010)

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I am currently researching the mathematics of Vincent Van Gogh’s artwork and have a question of the paper he may have used. His personal letters site his use of Whatman paper. I have also found an article from a professional journal that makes the following statement without a resource: “The Whatman paper that he [Van Gogh] most liked to use is either in full-sized sheets, approximately 48 x 60 centimeters, half-sized sheets, approximately 30 x 48, or quarter-sized sheets, approximately 24 x 3I.”  

My question: Can anyone verity that a “full-sized sheet” of Whatman paper in the late 1800s would be of dimension 48 x 60 centimeters? If so, is there a more precise measurement?  

My follow-up question: Van Gogh also references Harding paper and “papeir de la Forme”. What would the dimension of a full size of these brands had been during the same time period?  

Any other information of paper size during this time period would be helpful.

Thank you,

Pete Anderson

(question received 12/04/2010)

To Pete Anderson (question dated 12.04.2010) : "Papier à la forme"
traditionally just means "handmade paper" ("forme" meaning papermaking
mould), it is not a brand but a technical specification. But it can also
be used commercially to describe a... machine-made paper, made on a
"machine à forme ronde". About Van Gogh's Whatman paper, it could of
course be imported from England, but you also have to be aware that the
"J. Whatman" watermark (with or without a date) has been "copied" and used
by French papermakers all along the XIXth century- this is common in
writing paper found in many manuscripts (for instance Balzac's), I do not
know about drawing paper, but it could be the same. The next issue of the
french association AFHEPP journal, called "PapierS", might provide more
information on this phenomenon (article by Denis Peaucelle).

Claire Bustarret, Paris


(answer received: 22/04/2011



We have worked with paintings by George Stow, a 19th century geologist and rock art copyist in South Africa who did most of his work on Whatman papers. We measured all the works available to us (over 150) so I can report that the papers are approximately 675 x 510 - variable dimensions by a few mm due to the imprecise nature of papermaking, presumably.


Best wishes

Thomas Cartwright


(answer received 05/06/2010)



Holy Michael with sword and scales, Upper Austria?

Dear friends!

I am working with a medical manuscript, written in german, found in Upper Austria ? Steyr. Paper with these watermarks were used in the time between 1650 and 1730 in little variations in Upper Austria. The opinion of me and a good friend is, that these watermarks, because of the Holy Michael and the initials CB, are of the papermill Pettighofen (today region lenzing) bei Seewalchen in Upperaustria. Another sheets has the initials  FFD(B?)

You have seen these watermarks? You know something about the papermill? Please send me an information, thank you

With kind regards,

Eva Maria Mannsberger

(question received 12/04/2010)

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Van Gelder Zonen watermark identification

Hi,my name is Lisa Duncan and I am a paper and photograph conservator in the US. I have been researching Van Gelder Zonen paper as part of a project associated with an early Ansel Adams photographic portfolio. The paper has begun to discolor in interesting ways and I am trying to find out more information about the maker and also about the processes in making the paper. The portfolio I am interested in was printed around 1929 at Grabhorn Press in San Francisco, California. I have attached to this email 2 watermarks on the paper. Can you please forward this to someone who can add my posting/ question to your website? I was unable to get to an area for posting the question as my email is not directly linked to my computer. The button on the website does not provide an actual email name in order to copy and paste into my email.

I am interested in learning more about Van Gelder Zonen paper that was used in a 1929 portfolio by the famous American photographer, Ansel Adams titled "Parmelian Prints of the High Sierras." The paper was used as a folder for each of 18 prints in the portfolio. Currently the paper was discolored in areas in contact with the silver photographic print and I am trying to understand why this particular paper is so susceptible to discoloration. Any information about the processing techniques in the 1920s & 30s of Van Gelder Zonen would be greatly appreciated. Also, any sources about Van Gelder Zonen would be appreciated. Currently there is only one book that seems to address, in depth, Van Gelder Zonen and it is written in Dutch. Unfortunately, I don't read Dutch. The two watermarks embedded in the paper are attached, taken in transmitted light.

Lisa Duncan

(question received 05/04/2009)

I found on the IPH-website, on the page "Questions and Answers", some questions about watermarks/paper of Van Gelder Papier. Before I give answer to the questions at the very bottom of this e-mail, first some history about myself.


First of all: I am a member of the IPH. I attended already the first IPH symposium in 1961 in Oegstgeest Holland, when I was a 16-years old boy. Henk Voorn of course was the president; amongst many others Wolfgang Schlieder, Jadwiga Siniarska-Czaplicka and Theo Gerardy e.g. were there as well. I saw on the IPH website that Henk Voorn was president from 1963 on, I think it has to be from 1961?


When I was 13 years old  I had already a complete outfit for making paper by hand, incl. a small Hollander beater etc., and printed my own etches on that paper. It was just my great hobby and by that time I also started collecting and reading literature which had to do with the history of paper.


I was born in 1944 and grew up on the premises of the Van Gelder Zonen mill in Velsen, where my father was an employee till 1970. When I became 18 years I started working in four shifts at the newsprint papermachine PM 18 in Velsen. A few years later, in 1968, I started working at Customer Services of Van Gelder Zonen at the head quarters in Amsterdam.


In 1970 I became a Product Manager at Van Gelder Papier and was mainly dealing with the products from the mills in Wormer and Apeldoorn. I was involved in the organization of the IPH Symposium 1971 in Arnhem. One of the things I took care of was the syllabus of this symposium. Next to my job at Van Gelder, I studied and graduated in Economics at the University of Amsterdam. I also helped Henk Voorn around 1970 by giving access to and studying the historic archive of Van Gelder for his books about the Dutch paper industry.


I left Van Gelder Papier in 1976 and started my own company, printing heat transfer paper. It was first in Westzaan for 3 years, after 2 years in Wormerveer, and then I moved in 1980 with the company to Melick-Herkenbosch (close to Roermond), sold the company to Hunter-Douglas in 1991, when it had 50 employees, and started in 1995 a similar company in Lodz, Poland. In 1968 Van Gelder Zonen changed its trade name in Van Gelder Papier. Unfortunately in 1980 after a long tradition since 1784, because of bankruptcy, there came an end of what was for a long time the fourth biggest paper conglomerate in Europe.


In 1970/71 I was also involved in setting up a marketing plan for the Van Gelder Zonen plant in Apeldoorn, produced sample books, etc. By that time the mill in Apeldoorn had 5 paper machines.

-Three fourdriniers. Two for producing woodfree uncoated printing and writing and one for woodfree online coated paper;  

-Two mould machines (dutch: rondzeefmachines): PM 3 and PM 13;

The two mould machines were from the very begin of the 20th century, and had replaced paper making by hand in Apeldoorn, both a trimwidth of 130 cms. They were meant to produce an imitation of the hand made paper, for which the Apeldoorn mill had a world wide reputation by that time. 


By the time that I was dealing with the products of these machines, On PM 13 was made white and coloured board (> 180 gr/m2). On PM 3 were made still the socalled oudhollandse papieren, so mainly paper with watermarks. The two watermarks which are shown in the Email of Mrs. Duncan are from paper produced either on PM 3 or PM 13. From the begin of the 20th century on, these were the only Van Gelder machines for paper with watermarks. I still have some of the sample books of paper from PM 3, which I produced in the early seventies in my possession. And that's why I can give pretty accurate info to the questions.


Please find attached a scan of the relevant pages. Scan # 1 shows you the cover of the sample book printed on Zaans Bord of the Schoolmeester in Westzaan.

(By that time I was managing (finance, production, marketing and organization) the Schoolmeester as well). 


Finally the answer to the questions:


The two watermarks are from the quality Oxhead, production code 81.023. It was sold in sheets of 40 x 52., 110 gr/m2, the 52 cms edge parallel to the machine direction and to the vergure wires at a distance of 4 cms.In the attachment # 8 of the Email you can see that the oxhead (watermark # 3) was placed in the left upper corner of the sheet and the name Van Gelder Zonen (watermark # 10) at the right bottom of the sheet, parallel to the 40 cm. edge. The oxhead is standing under an angle of 90 degrees, so vertical towards the name Van Gelder Zonen. The chain wires, at a distance of 4 cms, are in the machine direction.


Met vriendelijke groeten,







  Ton Steijn




   Tel. +48 42 6762767
   Fax. +48 42 6762709

Steijn Paper Sp. z o.o.
Dmosin Drugi nr 89

95-061 Dmosin, Poland
Regon 471634174
VAT: PL7251637767
Nr KRS: 0000001602
Equity: PLN 17.288.800,00




In re: Lisa Duncan’s query of 05/04/2009


I too am looking for more information about Van Gelder Zonen paper.  I am a book conservator, and I am examining a book printed on Van Gelder Zonen paper, which has the same watermarks shown in Ms. Duncan’s photos.  The book is printed on folios measuring 39.8 x 52.1 cm (15-5/8 x 20-1/2 inches) with what appears to be deckle on all four edges.  My question is whether this is the full sheet size.


This book is peculiar because it has been printed and bound ‘wrong grain,’ that is, with the grain running perpendicular to the spine. Ms. Duncan’s sample appears to be printed in the same fashion.  I wonder if this was a paper intended and designed to be printed and bound as quartos, which my book’s designer, and apparently Ansel Adams too, ignored and chose to use as folios.


The book I have was produced in 1931 in Berlin, published by the Soncino Gesellschaft and printed by Officina Serpentis.  I do not know whether the printer was also the binder.


Any information about this paper, and its apparent international popularity at the time, would be greatly appreciated.


Many thanks,


Anne Marigza Conservator, Books and Documents

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
Office of Collections
Washington DC

(Answer received 14/04/2010)



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